Apraxia of Speech: Motor speech disorder that impacts the production of sounds, syllables and words. The difficulty stems from the brain, causing difficulties planning and coordinating the movements of the muscles in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis.
Dysarthria: motor speech disorder resulting from impaired movement of the muscles used for speech production. This includes the lips, tongue, vocal folds, and/or diaphragm.
Cleft Lip/Palate: Speech and feeding issues that remain after the surgical repair of the tissue in the lip or palate (roof of mouth) that did not form properly in utero, resulting in a physical separation between the lip, palate, or both.
Frontal Lisp or tongue thrust pattern: Protrusion of the tongue beyond the developmentally appropriate age that extends between the anterior teeth on sounds defined as sibilants ( s, z, sh, ch, and j ).
Ankyloglossis (tongue-tie): Limited tongue movement as a result of the abnormal shortness of the lingual frenum.
Lateral Lisp: Occurs when air escapes out the sides of the mouth on sibilant sounds instead of the middle creating a slushy sound.